Thursday, May 27, 2010

may 27th chem 11

Today we did an esterfication lab, and were tasked to attempt to create a remotely decent smelling ESTER from a alcohol and carboxylic acid.

Here are the list of possible smells we could of created:

isoamyl acetate-----> banana
isobutyl salicylate-----> raspberry
methyl salicylate----->wintergreen <------ the one we wanted
ethyl butyrate-----> pineapple

benzyl butyrate-----> cherry
ethyl propionate-----> rum
isopropyl acetate-----> perfume
benzyl acetate-----> peach
methyl butyrate----->apple
octyl acetate----->orange
propyl acetate-----> pear
ethyl phenylacetate-----> honey

So after a lot of effort..err...time, we finally created an Ester, after waiting for it to cool down we wanted to see if it smelled like wintergreen. The smell kind of reminded me of baloons...

After we finished the lab the foods class had to leave to cook for the sports banquet, so the remaining people were given the honor of taking inventory in the shelves.

may 25th chem 11

Today as a review, we got into groups and had to make the given molecules in a certain amount of time. We were also racing against each other to see who would finish first. The group that finished first was awarded with a starburst =)

Here is the list that we had to make:

1) Methyl butanoate
2) dichloroethane
3) 3 enthyl 2 pentanone
4) Acetic acid
5) dimethyl ether
6) ethyl propyl ether
7) 2 bromo 4,4 dimethyl pentanal
8) 2,3 pentadiol
9) ethylamide
11) 2, 2 dimethyl butylamide
12) propyl butanoate
13) Formaldehyde
14) Phenol
15) 3 choloro 3 methyl 2 butanone

may 20th chem 11

More functional groups?!?

- Double-bonded oxygen to carbon chain and NH2
- Use carbon prefix and -amide suffix
- Building block of proteins


- Contains nitrogen with carbon chains
- Make up amino acids (amine and carboxyclic acid)
- Alkyl prefix with -amine ending
- Can be named a differnt way. Another way of saying methylamine is aminomethane

Now that were at the end, here is a condensed video explaining functional groups

may 18 chem 11

-Double bonded O, single bonded H at the end of a chain
-Naming: change the -e ending to -al
-similar to the ketones, but the oxygen is at the end of the chain

Carboxylic acids
-Found in insect bites
- Building blocks of fats/steroids


- found in flavoring, perfumes, fruits, vegetables oil etc.
- They are formed by esterfication of carboxylic acids
- Name the primary chain with -yl ending
- Secondary chain ends in -oate

may 14th chem 11


Today we learned a few new things about naming compounds

- Halogen atoms replace a hydrogen
- Bromo, Chloro, Floro (bromine, flourine, chlorine)


-just like a normal chain, but with an OH group at the end
- Change the ending to -ol


- Oxygen atom double bonded to carbon, with extending carbon chains
- Change the ending to -one


- Have an O joining two carbon chains together
- Name each carbon chain with -yl ending and add 'ether' at the end

may 10 chem 11

Today we learned about cyclo alkanes, which are basically carbon compounds in ring shapes (they can do that!)
-They still follow the same rules as the rest of the alkanes, but you add "cyclo" to the beginning of the name
- when you are numbering, you can go clock wise or counter clockwise, but start your "1" at the side chain, as you want it to be the smallest number (just like normal)

When a cyclic chain of 6 form, it will create a structure called benzene

Here is a video on naming cycloalkanes

may 3 chem 11

- Compounds with double bonds end in -ene
- Put a # in front of the parent chain that indicates where the double bond is
- Always start from the end with the double bond when numbering the chain
- Any time more than one double bond occurs, you add adi, atri, atetra...
- The longest chain has to include the double bond

<------alkenes naming system


- For compounds with triple bonds use -yne ending

- Follow all the same alkene rules
- The longest chain has to include the triple bond

This video shows you how to write and name the various chains

april 30 chem 11

Organic Chemistry
Today we started a new unit: organic chemistry, this unit is mostly memorizing and has very little to do with equations themself
- There are more carbon compounds than all ionic compounds combined
- The study of carbon compounds is called organic chemsitry
- Carbon can have multiple bonds and form many different shapes

<-----table of what we will cover Hydrocarbons have three types of formulas:

1) Molecular formulas


2) Condensed Structural Formula

3) Structural Formula

Nomenclature of Hydrocarbons

- One molecular formula can have a number of different structures

- Isomers are compounds that can be drawn in more than one way


1) Name the longest chain by using the correct suffix and adding "ane"

2) Locate any branches by number carbon atoms (use the lowest possible number system)
3) Name branches by using appropriate suffix and -yl ending (Alkyl branches)
4) If there are more than one of the same alkyl group, number each one and add the multiplier number in front of the branch name

april 22 chem 11

Ions in Solutions

- The formation of a solution depends on the ability of the solute to dissolve in the solvent
- Solvation is the interaction between solutes and solvents
- Ionic solids (salts) are cyrstals made up of ions
- Dissolving ionic solutions produces ions in a process called disssociation

Here are 2 examples of ionization

FeCl3 (s) ----->Fe 3+ (aq) + 3 Cl -1 (aq)
(NH4)2SO4 (s) -----> 2NH4 + (aq) + SO4 2- (aq)

april 20 chem 11

Intermolecular bonds (bonds between the molecules)

There are three types of bonds:
-London Dispersion Force (L.D.F)
-Hydrogen bonds (H-Bonds)

Here is a short summary of each
1.) LDF

- Results from temporary electron dipoles
- Weakest intermolecular force
- Increases as the # e- increases
- Occurs in any compound that has e-, which is everything

2.) Dipole Dipole

-Results from a permanent dipole in molecules
-Polar molecules experience this force
-Polarity depends on the electronegetivity of the element
- The strength of a dipole- dipole bond depends on the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms

3.) Hydrogen bonds
-This is a special type of dipole- dipole bond between H and O, F, or N
- Any molecule that: H-F, H-O or H-N

april 16th chem 11

Today in class, we learned about the polarity of the many solutes and solvents, we took down the following notes:
-Solutes or Solvents must be either polar or non-polar
-Non-polar substances have equal charge distribution (this means that they are symmetrical)
-Polar substances have an unequal charge distribution (this means that they are NOT symmetrical)

<---- H2O is an example of a non polar solution

The lab's objective was to determine if Glycerin is polar or non-polar.
Here's the background information that was written on the lab:
- Sodium chloride is an ionic solid crystalk that forms a crystal lattice structure. When dissolved in solvents, this lattice breaks up and the ions dissociate.
- Sucrose is table sugar and like Sodium Chloride it also forms a crystal structure. Unlike Sodium Chloride however, Sucrose is not ionic; it is molecular. The structure of Sucrose makes the molecule polar.
- Iodine, like Sucrose, is molecular and also forms crystals. However the crystals of Iondine are non-polar.
- Water is a polar solvent
- Paint thinner is a non-polar solvent
- Glycerine is a polar solvent

The result from this lab was that we learned that like substances dissolve, and unlike do not

Here is a video explaining polar and nonpolar molecules

april 14th chem 11

Solution Conductivity
Today we did a lab about the conductivity of many solutions, including water. We learned that distilled water by itself is not conductive, but tap water is conductive due to the many additional minerals that it contains.

Electrical conduction in solutions requires charged ions to be present.
Ionic solutions dissociate (break apart) when placed in water. Molecular solutions seldom split into ions

The following is the dissociation of Ce2(SO4)3:
Ce2(SO4)3 -> 2 Ce 3+ (aq) + 3 SO4 2+

If the compound is covalent, it will dissociate just into an aqueous version of itself.

We were given a tree to follow to determine conductivity:

Is it a metal?
If yes, then it is CONDUCTIVE. but if no then ask:
Is it a solid non-metal?
If yes, then it is NON-CONDUCTIVE. If no, then ask:
Is it an acid or base?
If yes, than it is CONDICTIVE, if no then ask:
Is it ionic?
If yes, then it is CONDUCTIVE, if no then it is not.

Here is a video about the conductivity of solutions

Monday, May 3, 2010

april 1st Chem 11


Today we had a lab and all we really did was tip a conductivity probe into many different solutions to test their various conductivities, we came to the conclusion that ionic solutions are more conductive than molecular solutions.

march 30 chem 11


Here are a few basic things to know about solution chemistry:
-it is the study of chemical reactions in solutions
-the solution is a homogeneous mixture
-there is a solute and a solvent, solvents are the larger amounts and solutes are the smaller amounts
-a saturated solution contains the optimal amount of solutes
-a unsaturated solution can contain more solute
-solutobility is measured in g/L, g/ml, mol/L

Another major thing to keep in mind is that there are factors that can affect solubility. These include heat, and changing the amount of solvent or solutes.

Water is one of the best solvents because it is polar and is capable of creating hydrogen bonds

Example of a solution: salt water